Lmao…boy you said a mouth full there Donaldj
But he is Wright.
Here is a jump on your reading.
Cannabis’ ancestry is well accepted to be near the Hindu Kush of northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, and ruderalis is considered the closest to the archetype ancestor of all cannabis. Its territory stretches from the Hindu Kush of northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, stretching through northern China and Russia near Siberia.
Regular photo period strains of cannabis do not naturally flower in the spring. Cannabis naturally flowers when the days get shorter, to survive the winter, the seeds have a better chance at surviving the winter than the plants will.
Even equatorial sativa strains predominantly flower in the fall/winter, although near the equator you might be able to get two harvests annually. Typically any photo period strain of cannabis needs about at least 12 solid hours of darkness or more to induce flowering.
You can indeed delay flowering by interrupting the dark period with supplemental light.
I wouldn’t use a typical or traditional incandescent light, not enough blue light to keep a plant healthy.
int lights, especially p
Metal Halide (MH) can be better tuned to a closer spectrum matching natural sunlight but is not as efficient in the conversion of watts to PAR as HPS, so you get more bang for your electrical watt with HPS. LEDS are among the most efficient as they can deliver specifically PAR only, and no other parts of the electricity is wasted on non PAR parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Most commonly found in MH and fluorescent lights you’ll see a color rating based on the “Kelivin” color scale, the higher the number the more “cold” or blue/violet the light looks and in general the more of this side of the electrical magnetic spectra is represented, the smaller the number the more “warm” or orange/red the light looks and in general more of this side of the electrical magnetic spectra is represented.
5500K to 6000K is the color of sunlight at high noon and is generally considered pure white or true white. 5000K to 6500K is the color of sunlight with various other conditions, including just before sunset and still bright(5000K) and overcast and kind of bright(6500K). Yes, the more exact color might change depending on altitude, possibly latitude as well as season, as this will change the amount of atmosphere the sun goes through and more atmosphere may further yellow or redden the hue of the sunlight, not unlike the way sunsets are more orange or red than the way the sun looks most pure white at high noon(5800K) when it is passing through the least amount of atmosphere.
Here is a break down of the electrical magnetic spectra near the photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR, range:
200 - 280 nm UVC ultraviolet range which is extremely harmful to cannabis plants because it is highly toxic.
280 - 315 nm Includes harmful UVB ultraviolet light which causes cannabis plants colors to fade.
315 - 380 nm Range of UVA ultraviolet light which is neither harmful nor beneficial to cannabis plant growth. Although some studies do seem to indicate this band might stimulate resin production, as THC does seem to have UV blocking properties, and these frequencies may be able to stimulate the plant to create these UV protecting resins without actually having toxic or negative effects on the plant’s biological function.
380 - 400 nm Start of visible light spectrum. Process of chlorophyll absorption begins. UV protected plastics ideally block out any light below this range.
400 - 520 nm This range includes violet, blue, and green bands. Peak absorption by chlorophyll occurs, and a strong influence on photosynthesis. (promotes vegetative growth)
520 - 610 nm This range includes the green, yellow, and orange bands and has less absorption by pigments.
610 - 720 nm This is the red band. Large amount of absorption by chlorophyll occurs, and most significant influence on photosynthesis. (promotes flowering and budding)
720 - 1000 nm There is little absorption by chlorophyll here. Flowering and germination is influenced. At the high end of the band is infrared, which is heat.
And above these wave lengths dwell the very long radio/TV waves (even microwaves), and below it resides the ultra short X-rays and gamma rays.
It is a lot of info, but I think I got you covered in most ways I could think of pertaining to your questions.
I believe about 14 hours of light is about the minimum to guarantee continued vegetative growth without flowering for almost all strains of cannabis, auto-flowers excluded. The minimum degree of intensity I’m not entirely sure of, I’d imagine it might be near that 2000 lumens minimum for a healthy adult plant’s vegetative growth.
But I’d imagine a few 25-45 watt common household 5000k-6500k CFLs placed near and around the plants, turned on in the “gas lantern routine” would probably work fine for your purposes.
Do a general search for it on google or other search engine if you are not already familiar with the term.
Just keep in mind, light stress has been known to contribute to hermaphrodites in some strains and light schedules outside of nature might not be the best to avoid this type stress. We normally recommend consistent reliable light schedules without interrupting the dark cycle for best results with strains susceptible or known for hermaphrodites.