Grow terms and definitions (N-Z)



Here’s terms N through Z, that might help the new guys understand what is being said in conversations here. (partial credit goes to “dajosh42069”)

For #'s and A-M click this link:

Necrosis - Death of parts of the plant, usually refers specifically to the leaves.

NFT - Means “Nutrient Film Technique”. It’s a type of hydroponics, where you have the water constantly moving through the roots, usually on a timer with nutrients added to the water. Thereby allowing the roots to take in what they need, as they need it. It’s a good way to prevent

Nitrate - A salt or ester of nitric acid, containing the anion NO3− or the group —NO3.

Nitrite - A salt or ester of nitrous acid, containing the anion NO2− or the group —NO2.

Nitrogen or “N” - The chemical element of atomic number 7, a colorless, odorless unreactive gas that forms about 78 percent of the earth’s atmosphere. Liquid nitrogen (made by distilling liquid air) boils at 77.4 kelvins (-195.8°C) and is used as a coolant.

Node - The point on a stem where a leaf is attached or has been attached; a joint.

NPK - The elemental symbol for nitrogen is N; for phosphorus it’s P; for potassium it’s K. All three of these elements are essential for plant growth and are considered macronutrients. N, P, and K are the three principal ingredients in most fertilizers. The NPK ratio is shown by three numbers, such as 2-1-1, that reflect the percentage of each.

Nutes - Nutrients or Fertalizers.

Nute-Burn - The result of feeding a plant an excess of fertilizer or nutrients.

Nute-Lock - When the pH is off and it locks the nutrients into the soil, thereby preventing the plant from absorbing them.

Organic Nutrients - Natural, non-synthetic nutrients.

P - (see Phosphorus)

Peat moss --The partially decomposed remains of mosses harvested commercially from the wild. Though difficult to wet initially, peat moss can absorb up to 25 times its own weight in water and is therefor valued as a an organic soil amendment. Peat moss is acidic --with a pH of about 3 or 4.0-- and should only be used around acid-loving plants or to help lower the pH of alkaline soils.

Perlite – a unique volcanic mineral which expands from four to twenty times its original volume when it is quickly heated to a temperature of approximately 1600-1700 degrees F. This expansion is due to the presence of two to six percent combined water in the crude perlite rock which causes the perlite to pop in a manner similar to that of popcorn. When expanded, each granular, snow-white particle of perlite is sterile with a neutral pH and contains many tiny, closed cells or bubbles. The surface of each particle is covered with tiny cavities which provide an extremely large surface area. These surfaces hold moisture and nutrients and make them available to plant roots. In addition, because of the physical shape of each particle, air passages are formed which provide optimum aeration and drainage. Because perlite is sterile, it is free of disease, seeds, and insects. Perlite has been used for many years throughout the world for soil conditioning and as a component of growing mixes with materials such as peat moss or bark. Extensive studies have shown that the unique capillary action of perlite makes it a superior growing media for hydroponic cultures. Among the many uses of perlite today are propagation and seed cultivation, plug production and transplants, interiorscape and planter growing, composting.

pH or (potential Hydrogen) - the measure of soil’s acidity or alkalinity, measured on a scale of 1 to 14. Water is considered neutral at PH 7. PH levels below 7 are classified as acidic, or “sour”. Levels above 7 are basic, alkaline or “sweet”. Most plants prefer a slightly acidic soil pH of 6.0 to 6.5.

Phenotype - The plants characteristics as determined by not genetics, but by environment grown.

Phloem - The vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.

Phosphorus or “P” - The chemical element of atomic number 15, a poisonous, combustible nonmetal that exists in two common allotropic forms, white phosphorus, a yellowish waxy solid that ignites spontaneously in air and glows in the dark, and red phosphorus, a less reactive form used in making matches.

Photoperiod - AKA lighting schedule, it is the number of hours of light and darkness the plant is exposed to. Usually expressed as a fraction. Ex: 18/6 = 18 hours of light, and 6 hours of darkness

Photosynthesis - Biochemical process in which light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, and is used to fuel the building of sugar molecules.

Pistil - A hair-like protrusion from the nodes/buds of a female plant, also a precursor to the buds themselves. Pistils turn from white to brown as the buds mature.

Plant Stress - Any unhealthy stimuli the plant receives. Examples: Light-burn, overwatering, nute-burn. Stress can cause slow growth, mutations, or death.

Potash - Broadly, potash describes any material containing potassium. More specifically, though, potash is potassium carbonate derived from wood ashes. The term potash comes from the process of extracting lye from wood ashes in iron pots

Potassium or “K” - The chemical element of atomic number 19, a soft silvery-white reactive metal of the alkali metal group.

PPM - Acronym for Parts Per Million, this term is used most in hydroponics to measure the amount of nutrients given to a plant.

Rock Wool - Mineral or rock wool has been used extensively in Europe and is recently finding applications in the U.S. greenhouse market. Like perlite and vermiculite, it originates from a natural mineral (alumino silicates with some calcium and magnesium) that is heated to 2,700?F to form fibers that are used to make blocks or cubes as a finished product. Blocks or slabs of rock wool are used extensively by hydroponic growers of greenhouse vegetables. Rock wool typically has an alkaline pH, is sterile and chemically inert.

Regenerate - OR Re-vegging, refers to the act of putting a plant back into the growth cycle after harvesting the flowering buds off of the plant, in order to bud the plant again or to take clones off of the plant. (See Vegging)

RO - Reverse Osmosis, is a form of purifying water usually used in the bottling of waters.

Root Bound - A condition where a plant or seedling’s roots have grown compacted and entwined in the pot and has no room to grow. This condition results in stunting the plants growth and potential. The solution is a larger pot or transplanting outdoors.

Ruderalis - Ruderalis is not a very good choice for flower production, indoors or out. Despite maintaining a short stature, growing only one to five feet tall, and maturing rather quickly, Ruderalis just doesn’t produce the yield or quality one looks for in their flowers. A slight light cycle reduction can trigger a sprout with as little as 2 to 3 leaf sets to flower. Ruderalis spontaneously initiates flowering a few weeks after sprouting, and will not produce decent flowers unless the photoperiod provides around 18 to 19 hours of light. Even then, the yield and quality are less than desirable, incomparable to that of the Sativa or Indica sub-species.

S - (see Sulfur)

Silica - A hard, unreactive, colorless compound that occurs as the mineral quartz and as a principal constituent of sandstone and other rocks.

Sativa - Sativa is a hard plant to grow indoors due to high lighting requirements, tall stature, and late flowering traits. Sativas come from equatorial regions, thus the necessity for high amounts of lighting and a warmer tropic-subtropical climate. You can identify a Sativa by its long, slender, finger-like leaves. A Sativa will typically produce a euphoric, energetic, cerebral high. Despite the Sativa’s climatic limitations, they are truly a reward to obtain, grow, and smoke. A pure Sativa will take 2 to 4 months to finish flowering.

ScrOG - “Screen Of Green” method. The purpose of ScrOG is to maximize your usage of the available space and lighting by training the new growth of a plant into a screen or mesh.

Seed Casing - The integuments of the ovule, which are the ovule’s old coverings, harden and become the seed’s protective coat

Sensimilla OR Sensi - In Spanish means ‘without seed’, having a female plant bud without letting a male plant pollenate it, thereby preventing seeds from forming in the buds. This increases THC potency and smokable bud weight.

Sepal - Sepals are components of the calyx. Located at the base of the flower, these modified leaves usually function as protection for the petals while in bud stage. Occasionally, sepals will be colored, but they are usually green

Sexing - The act of determining the gender of a plant through various methods.

Shwag/Stress/Regs/Bobby Brown - Non-Sensimilla buds that are typicly grown in very large outdoor batches, which prevents the care and love that smaller groups of plants can get. It has many names, this is only a few of them.

SOG - ‘Sea of Green’ method. The purpose of SOG is to maximize your usage of the available space and lighting by lollipoping all branches, with potentially an unlimited amount of plants in a very tight space; generally done right from new clone or new seedling with very little Veg time.

Stamen - This is the male reproductive organ of a plant, located in the androecium of the flower. It has two components: the filament and the anther…

Stigma - The sticky tip of a pistil.

Strain - refers to the specific genetics of the plant. Example: White Widow, Northern Lights.

Stomata - Opening in the epidermis of a leaf which permit gas exchange with the air.

Stretching - When the lights are placed too far from the growing plant and causes it to stretch out and grow tall and skinny. Normally this happens in young plants and seedlings/sproutlings.

Sulfate - A salt or ester of sulfuric acid, containing the anion SO42− or the divalent group —OSO2O—.

Sulfur or “S” - The chemical element of atomic number 16, a yellow combustible nonmetal.

Sun Leaves/Fan leaves - These are the large leaves that grow off of branches, and while not rich in THC, they play an important role in photosynthesis.

Synthetic Nutrients - Concentrated and industrial-made nutrients. They have a longer shelf-life than organic nutes, but are known to nute-burn a plant more quickly.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) - A compound, C-21 H-30 O-2, obtained from cannabis or made synthetically, that is the primary intoxicant in marijuana and hashish. The main physcoactive ingredient in cannabis. This is what gets you “high!”.

Topping - Is a method used separate and top of the plant, and make it grow into 2, or even 4 very large main cola’s (See Colas) Traditionally, topping your plant causes two shoots to grow back in place of the one pruned off, thus increasing the number of top/main buds

Transplanting Shock - When transplanting seedlings from one place to another, the roots are often disturbed and occasionally the change in climate can cause the plant to slow down or appear to stop growing. This is transplant shock. It is really redirecting it’s energy to re-grow lost roots and to get accustomed to a change in temperature that it hadn’t experienced before.

Trichomes - AKA crystals or sugar, they are tiny, mushroom-shaped capitulate glands full of THC that form on the flowering buds and bud leaves of cannabis.

Vascular - Refers to the xylem and phloem tissues, which conduct water and nutrients through the plant body.

Vegetative - OR ‘Vegging’ Refers to the vegetative stage in the first part of a plants life when it is only growing leaves and stems. This is when you have your lights on 18/6-24/0, or any timing variation where the amount of light exceeds the amount of dark by several hours. This phase preceeds flowering and follows sproutling.

Ventilation - Circulating air in order to provide the plant with fresh air and/or to reduce the temperature in the grow area. Air movement also encourages strong stems.

Vermiculite - is sterile and light in weight (5 to 8 lbs/ft3). The pH of vermiculite will vary depending on where it is mined. Most U.S. sources are neutral to slightly alkaline, whereas vermiculite from Africa can be quite alkaline (pH = 9). Vermiculite is used extensively in the greenhouse industry as a component of mixes or in propagation. It is usually sold in four size grades: #1 is the coarsest and #4 the smallest. The finer grades are used extensively for seed ermination or to topdress seed flats. Expanded vermiculiteshould not be pressed compacted, especially when wet, as this will destroy the desirable physical properties.

Watering Schedule - term referring to how often and how much water a plant is given, usually measured in days and gallons. Ex: 1 gallon every 4 days.

Watts - A measure of the amount of electricity flowing through a wire. Watt hours measure the amount of watts used in one hour. A kilowatt/hour (KWH) is 1000 watt/hours.

WW - Typically refers to the cannabis strain ‘White Widow’.

Xylem - The vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem.

Yield - The amount of bud harvested, or projected to be harvested, from a finished plant.

Zinc or “Zn” - The chemical element of atomic number 30, a silvery-white metal that is a constituent of brass and is used for coating (galvanizing) iron and steel to protect against corrosion.

Zn - (see Zinc)

Completely new to this and need amazed I've got this far!
1st Serious grow
Getting the max out of the lights you have?
First time Grower- I thought this was gonna be easy
Grow terms and definitions (#'s & A - M)

Awesome post, I have I think half of that wrote down in a note book, but a very enjoyable read learned a few new things